South Africa has a number of airlines flying between its major cities, and some of its smaller ones, with fares ranging from first-class to cut-price economy. Flights can be booked online from anywhere in the world.South African low-cost airline Mango is owned by South African Airways (Photo: Mango Airlines, Facebook)South Africa has a number of airlines flying between its major cities as well as to some of its smaller ones, with fares ranging from first-class to cut-price economy. Flights can be booked online from anywhere in the world.Airports Company South Africa (Acsa) was formed to own and operate the nine principal South African airports, including the three main international gateways – OR Tambo International (Johannesburg), Cape Town International and King Shaka International (Durban). The other six are Bram Fischer (Bloemfontein), Port Elizabeth, Upington, East London, George and Kimberley.There are several other privately owned international airports in South Africa, including Lanseria International, outside Johannesburg, and Nelspruit Airport/Kruger Mpumalanga International, conveniently situated near the country’s major wildlife reserves.Acsa is a partially state-owned company.See Acsa’s website.Seven major domestic airlines operate in the country, as well as a number of smaller charter airline companies.South African Airways, South African Express and Airlink fly between all the major cities and to some of the smaller ones.Kulula.com and Mango offer cut-price flights on the more popular routes between Johannesburg (OR Tambo and Lanseria), Durban, Cape Town, Port Elizabeth and George.British Airways, operated by Comair, operates flights between the major centres.All flight operators offer online booking services, with payment by credit card or directly into the relevant bank account.You need to be at the airport 90 minutes before departure for domestic flights.Kulula.comKulula.com offers low-cost, single-class flights between Johannesburg’s OR Tambo International and Lanseria airports, and Cape Town, Durban, George, East London and Port Elizabeth. It has also added other southern African countries to its itinerary, and flies to Windhoek, Harare, Mauritius, Victoria Falls and Livingstone, and flies from Nairobi.Call centre: 0861 KULULA / 0861 585852International bookings (from outside SA): +27 11 921 0500General enquiries: firstname.lastname@example.orgGroup bookings: email@example.comKulula.com online bookingsMangoA no-frills carrier operated by SAA, Mango offers low-cost, single-class flights between Johannesburg’s OR Tambo International and Lanseria airports, and Cape Town, Durban, George, Port Elizabeth, and Bloemfontein. Mango also flies from OR Tambo International to Zanzibar.Reservations: +27 11 978 1111Call centre: 086 100 1234Call centre from outside SA: Johannesburg: +27 11 359 1222, Cape Town: +27 21 936 1061E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgMango online bookingsSouth African AirwaysSouth Africa’s national carrier flies locally between Johannesburg (from OR Tambo International and Lanseria), Cape Town, Durban, Port Elizabeth, East London, Bloemfontein, George, Pietermaritzburg, Mthatha, Kimberley, Polokwane, Richards Bay, Upington, Nelspruit/Kruger, Hoedspruit, Skukuza, Phalaborwa, Mmabatho, Sun City, Pretoria, Manzini and Maseru – as well as into Southern Africa, the rest of Africa and the world. It offers economy, business and first class cabins.Reservations: +27 11 978 1111Call centre: 0861 FLY SAA (0861 359 722)Call centre from outside SA: +27 11 978 5313E-mail: email@example.comSAA online bookingsAirlinkAirlink flies locally between Johannesburg, Cape Town, Durban, Port Elizabeth, East London, Bloemfontein, George, Pietermaritzburg, Mthatha, Kimberley, Polokwane, Upington, Sishen, Nelspruit/Kruger, Phalaborwa, Skukuza, Pretoria, Manzini and Maseru – as well as into Namibia, Botswana, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Madagascar and Mozambique. Classes are economy, business and first.Customer care and head office: +27 11 451 7300 / +27 10 590 3170Call centre: 0861 FLY SAA (0861 359 722)Call centre from outside SA: +27 11 978 5313 (customer support online bookings) +27 11 978 1111Group bookings: +27 11 451 7300 or +27 10 590 3170E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgSouth African Airlink online bookingsSouth African ExpressSA Express flies locally between Johannesburg, Cape Town, Durban, Port Elizabeth, East London, George, Hoedspruit, Bloemfontein, Kimberley, Nelspruit, Mahikeng, Richard’s Bay and Pilansberg – as well as into Botswana, Namibia, Democratic Republic of Congo, Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Flights are in economy and business class.Call centre: 0861 FLY SAA (0861 359 722)Reservations: +27 11 978 1111, E-mail email@example.comGroup Reservations: +27 11 978 9905, E-mail firstname.lastname@example.orgSouth African Express online bookingsBritish AirwaysOperated by Comair, British Airways offers return flights to and from Johannesburg, Cape Town, Durban, Port Elizabeth, and the Kruger National Park in economy, premier economy, business/club or first class. It has a codeshare agreement with Kulula.com.Reservations: +27 11 921 0222 option 1British Airways online bookingsFlySafairA wholly owned subsidiary of Safair, the aviation cargo and aircraft leasing company, FlySafair is a low cost, no frills airline that operates between Cape Town and Johannesburg (OR Tambo International), Durban, East London, George, and Port Elizabeth. Like other low cost carriers, it has a buy-on-board programme when it comes to food and drinks.Reservations: 087 135 1351; email: email@example.comFlySafair online bookingsOR Tambo International AirportOR Tambo International Airport flight information: 086 7277 888OR Tambo International Airport help desk: +27 11 921 6262Online booking servicesA number of independent web-based agencies offer pricing comparisons between the airlines, and online booking services. These include:Travelstart, which also powers the SA Tourism bookings page;SA Airlines;SA Flights; and,Cheap Flights 4 U.Updated December 2015Originally published April 2002Would you like to use this article in your publication or on your website? See Using Brand South Africa material.
The close-up shot is a director’s secret weapon, but it requires technical know-how and narrative timing. Here’s what you need to know.Cover image via REDPIXEL.PL.There is a scene in Five Easy Pieces wherein Bobby Dupea (Jack Nicholson) wheels his ailing father (William Challee) outside in the cold to view the sunset, confess, expose, and apologize for his estrangement from the family. It’s a powerful sequence and a raw and emotional disclosure for our main character.The scene requires intimacy, and Bob Rafelson knew that it required a close-up — but one that served the story and the character. These men have had a turbulent, cold, and distant relationship. The sequence begins reflecting the past with a long shot of Nicholson and Challee against a dramatic sunset. They are both small and insignificant against the majestic sky.Image via Columbia Pictures.They stop dead center in the frame, and at this camera distance, Nicholson fixes the blanket on the old man’s lap and utters “You cold” to someone too sick for words. It’s the first step at connection, and on action, as Nicholson bends down to his level, Rafelson cuts to a medium two-shot. He sustains this shot for about 40 seconds, until Nicholson earns his close up — until the character is ready to reveal something. And even then, Rafelson frames the shot below his shoulders to not be too intrusive. He allows his actor to determine the frame.Rafelson doesn’t rein in the performance — if Nicholson needed to drop his head, the camera moved with him. When Nicholson leans and nearly leaves the frame, Rafelson cuts quickly to a reaction shot of Challee then returns to Nicholson swinging back in. It’s at that exact moment when Nicholson loses it emotionally, and he becomes his most vulnerable. All of this is by design, not luck or spontaneity. The people in the editing room chose these moments precisely to reflect the director’s vision for the emotional result of the scene.The PayoffImage via Paramount.Just like the source material, the close-up (by design) is the payoff shot. A line like “Frankly, my dear, I don’t give a damn” in Gone With the Wind only has power because of the nearly four hours we’ve spent watching Rhett Butler pursue, sacrifice for, and ache over Scarlett O’Hara. When he says that line, it’s a release for the character and the end of his story.The same principle applies to shooting. The close-up shot is a window into the character. It can reveal the character’s growth moment (John McClane’s confession to Powell that he never told his wife he’s sorry in Die Hard); it can depict a character discovering something important (Gene Hackman unraveling the truth in The Conversation) or create tension between characters (the standoff in The Good, the Bad and the Ugly). It can be all this and much more. It is a tool the director uses to let the audience know that a particular moment is important.If you overuse it, you run the risk of fatiguing the viewer and undermining the truly important moments. If you avoid it completely, you may be missing opportunities to reveal character and risk emotionally alienating the story.Technical ConsiderationsImage via United Artists.You’ll want to use a longer lens (70mm-100mm) for a close-up. A longer lens makes the depth of field shallower and throws the background out of focus. A wider lens tends to distort faces, making them look abnormal. Longer lenses reduce that effect. If you were to use a 24mm lens, you would have to move the camera very close to your subject to frame the actor for a close-up and contend with a lot more background than you would using a 70 or 85mm lens.In terms of storytelling, overusing the close-up might undermine the artistic vision. If you highlight every scene as special, then nothing is particularly special. In addition, overusing the close-up can disorient the viewer. If there are no establishing shots or master or medium shots that show the viewer where they are in the context of the events in the film, you can create a frustrating experience that won’t serve the story.Continuity is also an important consideration. You may be so focused on the depth of field that subtle aspects of continuity could get lost. For example, if you were shooting outside, was there a breeze in the establishing or wide shot that later, when you are shooting the close-up, is missing? Has the natural light dramatically changed, and will you need to artificially match it to the master? The temperature? If so, pay attention so the actor doesn’t appear cold in the master but comfortable in the close-up.Up Close and PersonalImage via Artisan Entertainment.The close-up is a powerful design tool for the director. It should spring from the screenplay, giving the viewer clues and insight into story and character.Try to imagine Ellen Burstyn’s powerful story about wearing the red dress in Requiem for a Dream from across the room. And see what the director (Aronofsky) conveys by getting out of the close-up as soon as Jared Leto’s character begins to lie. He stands, moves away, and ends up framed at the very edge. He is so far removed from the previous intimacy that he is practically out of frame. That is filmmaking that serves the story and resonates with the audience.Looking for more cinematography breakdowns? Check out these articles.ESCAPE ROOM (Short Film) — How To Composite Your Own StuntsFilmmaking Lessons from Oscar-Nominated DirectorsOn Fading to Black: The Hows, The Whens, and The WhysThe Cameras and Lenses Behind 2018 Oscar-Nominated FilmsBezier Curves: What Are They and How Do You Use Them?
Playing the soft-Hindutva card, the Congress government in Madhya Pradesh has decided to create a separate department to woo Hindu voters, who are traditionally seen as the vote bank of the BJP, ahead of the crucial general election in 2019. The new Spiritual Department will be created by merging the Religious Trusts and Endowments Department and the Happiness Department, the two popular departments of the previous BJP government led by Shivraj Singh Chouhan that ruled the State for 15 years.The Directorate of Religious Trusts and Endowments, Pilgrimage and Fair Authority; Directorate of Mukhyamantri Teerth Darshan Yojana and the Rajya Anand Sansthan will also be included in the new department, an official said on Monday.Official sources said the main objective of the formation of the Spiritual Department is to strengthen inter-communal harmony in the State.The other objectives of the proposed department include proper conservation and development of religious places; scientific evaluation of places of worship; encourage religious tourism in coordination with the Tourism Department; arrangement of honorarium to priests; formation of welfare schemes, and revival of temple gardens in collaboration with the Department of Horticulture and temple tanks in collaboration with the Rural Development Department.‘Nothing wrong’Meanwhile, Union Minister and BJP leader Uma Bharti has said that there was nothing wrong in the Congress government forming the Spiritual Department, saying it was the prerogative of the incumbent government to take certain decisions.