(Visited 58 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0 How long does it take to form veins of gold in the rock? (a) millions of years; (b) less than a second.If you guessed (b), you overestimated. It might just be a few tenths of a second. So reported Richard A. Lovett in Nature News about a new study in Nature Geoscience on the relationship between heat, pressure, precipitation, and earthquakes.Scientists have long known that veins of gold are formed by mineral deposition from hot fluids flowing through cracks deep in Earth’s crust. But a study published today in Nature Geoscience has found that the process can occur almost instantaneously — possibly within a few tenths of a second.The process takes place along ‘fault jogs’ — sideways zigzag cracks that connect the main fault lines in rock, says first author Dion Weatherley, a seismologist at the University of Queensland in Brisbane, Australia.The idea is that hot fluid flashes into vapor in the fault jogs during earthquakes, causing nearly instant precipitation of the fluids within them under rapid depressurization. This is called “flash vaporization.” Small earthquakes appear to be more efficient at gold vein formation than large ones. A slip of merely 130 micrometers in a 90-centimeter fault zone can result in a 50% pressure drop, allowing the rapid precipitation of gold and quartz.The caption in a photo of a gold vein accompanying the article says, “Veins of gold, such as this one trapped in quartz and granite, may deposit when the high-pressure water in which they were dissolved suddenly vaporises during an earthquake.”Lovett still promoted the idea that large veins of gold might take hundreds of thousands of years to form out of the “tiny” veins hypothesized in the study.That, Weatherley adds, might be one of the reasons that the rocks in gold-bearing quartz deposits are often marbled with a spider web of tiny gold veins. “You [can] have thousands to hundreds of thousands of small earthquakes per year in a single fault system,” he says. “Over the course of hundreds of thousands of years, you have the potential to precipitate very large quantities of gold. Small bits add up.”Nevertheless, it’s still a “flash in the pan” to use Lovett’s clever double metaphor. Given that so many small earthquakes can occur in a few years, it would seem hundreds of thousands of years are not necessary to find gold in them thar hills. The authors of the original paper said, “Multiple earthquakes progressively build economic-grade gold deposits.”See also the 10/15/2006 entry, “Gold Can Form in a Geological Instant.”It takes a lot of findings like this to overcome the programming many students receive in school that everything on earth takes millions of years. Darwin was enamored with the idea of slow and gradual processes accumulating large changes over time. That, however, is a worldview preference, not a fact of nature.
Brand South Africa is at the 45th World Economic Forum in the Swiss town of Davos from 21 to 24 January 2015 to share that message that South Africa is a globally competitive nation, an integral part of a rising Africa, and open for business. Open for businessAt the 2015 WEF annual meeting in Davos, Team South Africa will be showcasing eight major economic sectors that are open for business to international investors. More >Click on an image for a larger version.MINING AND BENEFICIATIONAGROPROCESSINGINDUSTRIAL INFRASTRUCTURETOURISMHEALTHCAREMANUFACTURINGINFORMATION & COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGYFORESTRY & RELATED PRODUCTS Introducing WEF Davos 2015South Africa to showcase its success at Davos15 January 2015 – President Jacob Zuma will be heading up the high-level South African delegation of cabinet ministers and business leaders attending the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland, from 21 to 24 January, the Presidency said on Wednesday. More > South Africa’s education system critical to competitiveness15 January 2015 – As Team South Africa prepares to showcase the country’s successes at the World Economic Forum annual meeting in Davos, Switzerland, we must remember that a quality education for young people is critical to our global competitiveness, writes Brand South Africa CEO Miller Matola. More >A plan to move South Africa forward15 January 2015 – On the eve of the World Economic Forum at Davos, South Africa grapples with three challenges in building an equal society: high unemployment, poverty and inequality. A way forward is in infrastructure investment, considered the most direct way to creating skilled, high-paying jobs. More > Four key issues on the agenda for WEF Davos 201515 January 2015 – The world is changing at a breathtaking pace. In the past year, it seems to have become a darker place, marked by deepening geopolitical fault-lines which jeopardise the era of economic expansion, integration and partnership that began with the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. More >Gallery: Nelson Mandela at Davos12 January 2015 – The World Economic Forum has unearthed historic photographs of Nelson Mandela attending the annual meetings in Davos in 1992, two years before he became South Africa’s first democratically elected president, and in 1999, the final year of his presidency. More >
Caring4Girls is a programme under the Imbumba Foundation. Richard Mabaso is the founder of Imbumba. (Image: Nelson Mandela Foundation)There was great excitement when the 27 climbers of the Trek4Mandela campaign got together yesterday to start their journey to climb Africa’s highest mountain.Sport Minister Fikile Mbalula and Miss South Africa Liesl Laurie were among those at the send-off event in Johannesburg earlier today.Mbalula said that he planned to join the climbers in summiting Tanzania’s Mount Kilimanjaro, at 5 895m above sea level, in 2016. He also pledged R100 000 to the campaign this year.Trek4Mandela, an initiative for Nelson Mandela International Day, is in its fourth year. It benefits Caring4Girls, a programme to provide sanitary towels and menstrual hygiene information to underprivileged girls in rural communities. Since it was established in 2012, Trek4Mandela has attracted massive interest from the government, the private sector and NGOs locally and internationally.It has generated support for over 50 000 beneficiaries, mainly in Mpumalanga, KwaZulu-Natal and Gauteng.Many of the climbers – as well as those sending them off – made known their enthusiasm on social media:Take action. Inspire change, make everyday a #MandelaDay. Kicking off the @Trek4Mandela climb with @flysaa pic.twitter.com/5bB4aRDahZ— Liesl Laurie (@LieslLaurie) July 13, 2015Equality for our children must be a reality. #MyHeroes #Trek4Mandela https://t.co/2rrjnmZJWe— Greg Maloka (@GregMaloka) July 13, 2015#Trek4Mandela climbers leaving their footprints as they ready for their symbolic Long Walk to Freedom #Caring4Girls pic.twitter.com/2AM4pSL2tx— NelsonMandela (@NelsonMandela) July 13, 2015The #Trek4Mandela team as they ready to leave South Africa for their summit of Mt Kilimanjaro #GirlChild #Dignity pic.twitter.com/YlxUXC6qol— NelsonMandela (@NelsonMandela) July 13, 2015Good luck to the #Trek4Mandela team. That is a real #MotivationMonday ahead of #MandelaDay. Long live the legacy of #NelsonMandela— Real Steven Taylor (@StevenTaylorSA) July 13, 2015These are @GerriLiive ‘s blinged out hiking shoes for #Trek4Mandela . What do you think? #180OnFridays pic.twitter.com/WdxJSeRoep— 180 with Bob (@180withBOB) July 10, 2015Why the climb?The climb is led by Sibusiso Vilane, the first black African to summit Mount Everest, and the founder of the Imbumba Foundation, Richard Mabaso. It celebrates Madiba’s legacy through supporting the education of South African girls who cannot afford sanitary towels.Yase Godlo, the manager of Mandela Day and Outreach at the Nelson Mandela Foundation, said to the South African Broadcasting Corporation that the objective of the climb was to help 270 000 girls across the country, or “30 000 girls per province”.It has been reported that girls miss up to 50 days of school a year each because they cannot afford sanitary towels.The climbers expect to summit Kilimanjaro by 18 July, Madiba’s birthday and Nelson Mandela International Day. There are 27 climbers in the group, one for each year that Mandela was in prison. They include hip-hop artist Proverb and television news presenter Leanne Manas. Each climber aims to raise at least R1.5-million for Caring4Girls.They will return to South Africa on 20 July. For more information on how you can contribute, visit the Nelson Mandela Foundation site. You can also sms the word “girlchild” to 42513 to pledge R30.
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest Today USDA Secretary Tom Vilsack announced that avian influenza, which devastated poultry operations around the country in 2015, was discovered on an Indiana farm.“Unfortunately we have had a reemergence of avian influenza in a facility in Indiana. We found out about it yesterday. We sent the lab sample and basically confirmed it as the North American variety. We are sending an emergency response team to the farm in question and we will begin the process of depopulation quickly,” he said. “We want to encourage folks to be ever vigilant on the biosecurity of their operations. We are hopeful to contain this as best we can. We were aware this could happen. We were hopeful that it wouldn’t. We want to be as responsive as we possibly can.”The USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has confirmed the presence of highly pathogenic H7N8 avian influenza (HPAI) in a commercial turkey flock in Dubois County, Indiana. This is a different strain of HPAI than the strains that caused the 2015 outbreak. There are no known cases of H7N8 infections in humans. As a reminder, the proper handling and cooking of poultry and eggs to an internal temperature of 165 degrees F kills bacteria and viruses, including HPAI.Samples from the turkey flock, which experienced increased mortality, were tested at the Indiana Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory at Purdue University, which is a part of USDA’s National Animal Health Laboratory Network, and confirmed by USDA this morning. APHIS is working closely with the Indiana State Board of Animal Health on a joint incident response. State officials quarantined the affected premises and depopulation of birds on the premises has already begun. Depopulation prevents the spread of the disease. Birds from the flock will not enter the food system.As part of existing avian influenza response plans, Federal and State partners are working jointly on additional surveillance and testing in the nearby area. The rapid testing and response in this incident is the result of months of planning with local, state, federal and industry partners to ensure the most efficient and effective coordination. Since the previous HPAI detections in 2015, APHIS and its state and industry partners have learned valuable lessons to help implement stronger preparedness and response capabilities. In September, APHIS published a HPAI Fall Preparedness and Response Plan that captures the results of this planning effort, organizing information on preparatory activities, policy decisions and updated strategy documents.The United States has the strongest AI surveillance program in the world, and USDA is working with its partners to actively look for the disease in commercial poultry operations, live bird markets and in migratory wild bird populations.Anyone involved with poultry production, from the small backyard to the large commercial producer, should review their biosecurity activities to assure the health of their birds. To facilitate such a review, a biosecurity self-assessment and educational materials can be found at http://www.uspoultry.org/animal_husbandry/intro.cfmIn addition to practicing good biosecurity, all bird owners should prevent contact between their birds and wild birds and report sick birds or unusual bird deaths to State/Federal officials, either through their state veterinarian or through USDA’s toll-free number at 1-866-536-7593. Additional information on biosecurity for backyard flocks can be found at http://healthybirds.aphis.usda.gov.
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest The Ohio Department of Agriculture announced that eight land trusts, four counties and 15 Soil and Water Conservation Districts will receive funding to help preserve farmland across the state. These organizations will receive allocations from the Clean Ohio Fund to select, close and monitor easements under the Local Agricultural Easement Purchase Program (LAEPP).LAEPP sponsor organizations will accept applications from Ohio landowners interested in selling an agricultural easement on their farms. A total of nearly $8.5 million will be made available in this funding round. Local sponsors have been certified to accept applications in 34 counties. Interested landowners should contact the certified local sponsor in their county for application details.The program allows landowners to voluntarily sell easements on their farms to the state of Ohio. The easement requires the farm remain permanently in agriculture production. Selected farms must be 40 acres or more, actively engaged in farming, participate in the Current Agricultural Use Valuation program, demonstrate good stewardship of the land, have the support of their local government and not lay directly in the path of development. Landowners may use the proceeds of the easement in any way they wish, but most reinvest it in their farm operations.Funding for the program is derived from the Clean Ohio Conservation Fund, approved by voters in 2008. When combined with easements from all programs, 449 family farms in 59 counties have collectively preserved more than 73,500 acres in agricultural production. For more information on Ohio’s farmland preservation effort visit: www.agri.ohio.gov/wps/portal/gov/oda/programs/farmland-preservation-office.
Any hopes Royal Challengers Bangalore (RCB) had of qualifying for the 2017 Indian Premier League (IPL) play-offs virtually ended after they lost by 61 runs to Rising Pune Supergiant (RPS) at the Maharashtra Cricket Association Stadium here on Saturday.The 2017 edition of the IPL has been a disappointing one for the Bangalore franchise, losing seven of their 10 outings so far to be virtually knocked out of the race to the play-offs. Pune, on the other hand kept their play-off dreams alive to stay at the fourth spot after registering their fifth win from nine matches.Chasing a decent 158, RCB were in self-destructive mode losing wickets at regular intervals with skipper Virat Kohli (55) fighting a lone battle to take the team through.Kohli, who went in to open the innings with Australian Travis Head (2), failed to find the support at the other end as the Pune bowlers seized the momentum to their favour.Medium pacer Jaydev Unadkat started the downfall for the visitors with the wicket of Head, who chopped one to the stumps before New Zealand quick Lockie Ferguson packed back the dangerous AB de Villiers (3) after the South African added RCB’s highest partnership of 21 runs for the second wicket with Kohli.New man Kedar Jadhav (7) looked good in the middle before a lack of communication between him and the skipper cost Bangalore their third wicket.Rookie off-spinner Washington Sundar immediately jolted the visitors with the wicket of Sachin Baby (2), brilliantly caught by a diving Steve Smith before Furguson saw the back of Stuart Binny (1) to reduce the men in red and black to 49/5.advertisementLeg-spinner Imran Tahir then joined the party with the wickets of Pawan Negi (3), Adam Milne (5) and Samuel Badree (2) to further dent RCB’s hopes.Struggling at 82/8, Kohli, who by then had reached his half century, the lone RCB batsman to get to the double figures also lost his focus to be caught at sweeper cover by Mayank Agarwal off Daniel Christian after striking four boundaries and a six.Towards the end, tailenders Yuzvendra Chahal (4 not out) and Sreenath Aravind (8 not out) had little answer to the mounting asking rate as RCB finished at 96/9.Earlier, Pune rode on skipper Smith’s 45 and Manoj Tiwary’s unbeaten 44 to reach 157/3 after being sent in to bat.The home side failed to find the momentum against the RCB bowlers, who stuck to a perfect line and length as the last five overs yielded just 46 runs for the home side.Ajinkya Rahane’s (6) dismal run continued to haunt Pune before opener Rahul Tripathi (37) cashed in on the dropped chance by Virat Kohli at 11, to help the hosts cross the 50-run mark with Smith.Smith, who looked in good touch raised a 40-run second wicket stand with Tripathi before the Maharashtra right-hander spoilt another good start to be caught behind by Kedar Jadhav off left-arm spinner Pawan Negi.The fall of Tripathi, who slammed four boundaries and a six during his 28-ball knock, however dried up the boundaries for Pune before Smith broke the shackles in the 12th over, by spanking Badree for a flat six and two consecutive fours.New man Tiwary, promoted to No.4 joined the party by taking Yuzvendra Chahal to the cleaners before Smith added two more fours off Stuart Binny as the third wicket partnership flourished to 50 off 32 balls.Struggling to find the momentum at 115/3 after 16 overs, Pune needed Mahendra Singh Dhoni (21 not out) and Tiwary to press on the accelerator and the former skipper responded in style by muscling Sreenath Aravind for a flat straight six.
ATHENS (AP) — Rick Pitino is back in a final.However, the Greek team he’s coaching reached the final after their opponents walked out at halftime because of poor officiating.Greece’s government has condemned a walkout by the basketball club Olympiakos during the Greek Cup semifinal game on Wednesday. The club forfeited the game in Athens after leaving while trailing 40-25.A spokesman for the team said he was “disgusted” with the quality of the refereeing.Giorgos Vassiliadis, the deputy minister for sport, described the game as a “blow to the sport” but said he couldn’t interfere with the referee selection process.Pitino tweeted after the incident, “Well, in 42 years of coaching, I thought I had seen it all.”Pitino’s Panathinaikos team will play in Sunday’s final against PAOK in Crete.TweetPinShare0 Shares
Sagnol urges PSG to go for Liverpool midfielder Keitaby Paul Vegas9 months agoSend to a friendShare the loveFormer Bordeaux coach Willy Sagnol believes PSG should move for Liverpool midfielder Naby Keita.PSG are in the market for a new midfield signing as a replacement for wantaway Adrien Rabiot.And Sagnol says: “With (Marco) Verratti, you have a player who is very good technically, able to organise the game from deep. But he needs a player with a large volume of play at his side. “Naby Keita (Liverpool) is a player who knows how to do everything, who recovers balls, can also project with and without the ball. Verratti and Keita could form a beautiful duet if we assume that (Thomas) Tuchel retains his defence with three men behind.” TagsTransfersAbout the authorPaul VegasShare the loveHave your say
HALIFAX – Another great white shark has been detected off Nova Scotia.A tag attached to Savannah, a 210-kilogram shark, pinged Monday morning off Barren Island near Sherbooke on the province’s eastern shore.It joins a 600-kilogram tagged shark named Hilton, who has spent more than a week along Nova Scotia’s south shore, and most recently pinged Monday night off Peggys Cove outside Halifax.Both sharks were tagged by the research group Ocearch, and are being watched closely through an Ocearch tracking map and their own Twitter feeds with thousands of followers.Ocearch chairman Chris Fischer has said white sharks could be using Nova Scotia’s Sable Island as a place to mate.The sharks are also likely drawn to the province to feed on seals.On Tuesday, Hilton’s Twitter feed responded to a tweet showing seals off Grandmother’s Cove near Lunenburg, N.S., with a drool emoji and the words: “Mmmm yummy seals.”Rear Admiral John Newton, who commands Canada’s East Coast navy, also tweeted a photo Monday of a south shore inlet, saying “@HiltonTheShark has been scaring the seals right up into our cove today. First time seeing them hanging in the shallows.”On Monday, Hilton had tweeted a map showing his Nova Scotia location and called to another Twitter-using shark: “Hey @SharkSavannah, come on up. Lots of good eating here!”In November, a 900-kilogram great white named Lydia — who also has her own Ocearch-managed Twitter account — was among two tracking off Nova Scotia.The Atlantic White Shark Conservancy says the animal is the largest predatory fish in the world, with a powerful jaw full of serrated teeth and a body that can weigh up to 1,800 kilograms. But it says the population in the North Atlantic has dropped by 75 per cent in the past 15 years and is listed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as vulnerable.They have been protected from harvesting in U.S. waters since 1991, but the conservancy says still so little is known about where the sharks travel, pup and feed.
VICTORIA – Real estate experts say the British Columbia government started to build a strong foundation for more affordable housing in Tuesday’s budget, but opinion varies on the expected outcomes.Finance Minister Carole James is trying to ease the province’s housing crisis by introducing a new tax on property speculators, expanding and increasing a tax on foreign homebuyers and spending $6 billion to build affordable housing over the next decade.James said she expects to see property values start to drop as her budget measures kick in.“We’re an amazing province,” she said Wednesday after speaking to the Greater Victoria Chamber of Commerce. “There’s no question people are going to want to live in B.C. But we need to see a moderation and my hope is, by addressing both supply and demand, you’ll see more supply in the market that will ease some of the cost pressures and you’ll see a moderation.”Tom Davidoff of the University of British Columbia’s Sauder school of business said he hopes the speculation tax will help make the lower end of the market more affordable, particularly for condos.The levy will be introduced this fall, targeting foreign and domestic homeowners who do not pay income tax in B.C., including those who leave homes vacant.In the 2018 tax year, the rate will be $5 per $1,000 of a property’s assessed value. Next year, the rate will rise to $20 per $1,000 of assessed value. It will initially apply to Metro Vancouver, the Fraser Valley, the Victoria area, the Nanaimo Regional District, Kelowna and West Kelowna.A non-refundable income tax credit will also be introduced to offset the new levy, providing relief for people who do not qualify for an exemption but who pay income taxes in B.C.James said B.C. residents with multiple properties, such as a summer cottage, will get the levy back as a credit on their income tax refund. But property owners from out of province will be dinged if they leave their B.C. home vacant, she said.The tax makes a lot of economic sense, Davidoff said, because B.C. has high income and sales taxes but low property taxes, which encourages vacationers to buy property and makes life more expensive for workers.“That is the worst possible idea in a market like Vancouver where you have a tremendous amenity level and it’s so hard to build,” he said. “We’re such a draw for people who don’t want to work here, but do want a lovely vacation home.”People who are affected by the new levy might sell their properties, freeing up housing for locals, he said.One issue the budget didn’t directly address is zoning, Davidoff said, adding that the taxes on speculation and foreign buyers might provide some indirect help because they will “bash” the high end of the real estate market. That encourages people to push for changes in zoning density to keep their property values up, he explained.“The property they own is going to be worth a lot less than it was before this tax. When you have new zoning, there’s a trade off — your property becomes more valuable because you can put greater density on it, but you don’t like what’s happening to your neighbourhood,” Davidoff said.He said the changes make it more attractive for people to subdivide a single luxury property into five or six moderately priced properties.Cameron Muir, chief economist at the Real Estate Board of B.C., said plans to help build 114,000 affordable housing units will offer much needed supply for rental and low-income properties.But he said a tremendous undersupply of available homes in Metro Vancouver, Victoria and Kelowna, coupled with B.C.’s strong economy, will keep home prices from dropping.“In terms of market impacts, it may be great to raise tax revenue, but this is not going to have a demonstrable impact on housing markets,” said Muir. “The chief culprit of rising home prices is the inability to supply the housing market in a timely fashion.”The head of an association of real estate developers across B.C. said measures in the budget won’t bring down prices for non-subsidized housing.An additional property transfer tax on homes worth more than $3 million will make it more expensive for developers to acquire land and that cost will be passed on to buyers, said Anne McMullin, president and CEO of the Urban Development Institute.There also isn’t enough labour to build thousands of new affordable housing units while keeping pace with the demand for housing built at market prices, and unless the province works with municipalities to speed up approval times, home prices will remain high due to a lack of supply, she added.“You can’t say ‘I’m going to add all these below market and social housing (units) to the market place, to the labour pool, to the industry,’ without dealing with the supply side, without dealing with the long processing times, without dealing with the lack of competition in the marketplace,” McMullin said.— With files from Gemma Karstens-Smith in Vancouver.